Global Governance and International Cooperation

Managing Global Catastrophic Risks in the 21st Century

The Global Governance Forum and the Global Challenges Foundation collaborate in this collection in their concern that the UN Charter and the contemporary infrastructure for international cooperation are no longer fit for purpose and lack the instruments, resources and legitimacy to address the catastrophic risks threatening our future.

Twenty-eight contributors offer thoughtful proposals for reforming existing international institutions and creating new ones to build a more peaceful, prosperous and just world, covering themes such as the management of weapons of mass destruction, collective security arrangements, justice and equity in economics, human rights, migration and refugees, climate mitigation, and food security, all bearing on the health of both people and planet.

The vital project of this century is building institutions that will underpin global governance in coming decades, requiring imagination, persistence, empathy, and confidence that we will find a path to enhanced mechanisms of binding international law and the resources to make that happen. The volume is essential reading for scholars and researchers on international politics and public policy and indispensable for diplomats and government agencies.

This book is open access.

Click through the Table of Contents below to access different sections of the book.

Or download the full PDF here.

This book is open access. Click through the Table of Contents below to access different sections of the book. Or download the full PDF here.

This book is open access. Click through the Table of Contents below to access different sections of the book. Or download the full PDF here.

Table of Contents

Introduction

Managing Global Catastrophic Risks in the 21st Century: A Global Governance Perspective

The contemporary crises faced by humanity require a new kind of international agreement. One which will prevent accelerating climate change from ruining the world for future generations, deescalate the high levels of nationalism which risk precipitating further global conflicts, and address economic and social inequities which could undermine the basis of democracy and good governance. One which will remove the possibility of the use of nuclear weapons and redefine national security in terms of human welfare rather than the military preparedness of individual states. At the 1945 conference in San Francisco where the UN Charter was adopted the UN´s founding members, conscious of the need to placate many countries which viewed the veto as undermining the legitimacy and future effectiveness of the UN, introduced Article 109—allowing for a future review of the appropriateness of the Charter in light of changes in the world. The forthcoming United Nations 2024 Summit of the Future provides the perfect opportunity to enact Article 109, binding states to hold a General Conference prior to 2030 where the Charter can be reviewed, and the first steps can be taken to confront the global catastrophic risks which threaten our future.

Profile of Augusto Lopez-Claros
Augusto Lopez-Claros
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Part I - Governance for Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Weapons of Mass Destruction

Nuclear One-Worldisms, Planetary Vulnerability and Whole Earth Security

Nuclear weapons have triggered a great debate on world political order across three phases and with three main positions: repair, reform and revolution. The revolutionary answer, nuclear one-worldism (NOW), argues for major world order changes arising from the intersection of new knowledges about the material world and a cascade of technological empowerments in collision with basic and long-standing human goals of survival, security and well-being. Early NOW thinkers viewed a world state as the necessary solution, but more recent versions advocate deep arms control and nuclear zero. NOW 2.0 has been strengthened by discoveries of biospheric vulnerability to major nuclear war. New historical evidence indicates nuclear war has been more likely than the repair and reform school believed. NOW thinking helped end the Cold War. A Whole Earth Security system would de-weaponise the planetary commons, have test bans, ‘open labs,’ circumscribed sovereign immunity, and educational and ritual components.

Profile of Daniel Deudney
Daniel Deudney
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Psychological and Societal Sources of Nuclear Peace

This chapter explores psychological and societal factors that help reinforce inhibitions against using nuclear weapons. The chapter is a response to the continued erosion of international institutions that govern nuclear weapons as well as the worsening geopolitical environment for making progress towards nuclear disarmament. At a time when some of the factors that have helped prevent nuclear war are getting weaker, it is important to reinforce the guardrails that help prevent nuclear use. The chapter argues that leaders and publics need to hold a moderate level of fear of nuclear dangers, which it labels a ‘healthy fear’, in combination with a degree of hope that nuclear war can be avoided. These psychological states of mind can be encouraged by activities in civil society, including protest movements against nuclear weapons. The chapter concludes with several ideas for actions that can be taken in current circumstances that would help bring attention to the still-present risks posed by nuclear weapons.

Profile of Jeffrey Knopf
Jeffrey Knopf
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Lessons from Existing WMD Multilateral Programmes and Platforms

Weapons of mass destruction (WMD), and especially nuclear weapons, have long been recognised as global catastrophic risks, and the international community has responded with governance measures based on multilateral treaties. This has worked to an extent, but the risks remain and are growing alongside current geopolitical trends and technological advances. Improving global governance of these risks will require preserving the benefits of the treaty-based system while addressing normative deficits and developing network-based governance approaches that draw on the capabilities of a wider range of actors beyond governments and intergovernmental organisations. Such a piecemeal, incremental approach will not be elegant but is feasible in the absence of political consensus and has a much better chance of success than attempting a fundamental reconstruction of the system.

Profile of Richard Lennane
Richard Lennane
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Towards a Global Nuclear Ban Treaty

Against the backdrop of global governance’s decades-long failure to secure humanity from the threat posed by nuclear weapons, The International Coalition to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (ICAN) blazed a fresh trail towards nuclear disarmament. Leveraging three key strategies relating to its structure, message and model, ICAN successfully reenergised the nuclear prohibition movement, gained international notoriety when it was awarded the 2017 Nobel Peace Prize and played a crucial role in mobilising the ratification by 91 states of the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons—the first and only comprehensive global nuclear ban treaty to date. Beyond the unprecedented impact it has had on the nuclear discourse, ICAN has proven that landmark international agreements can have their nexus in individuals and grass-roots coalitions.

Profile of John Miller
John Miller
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Weapons, War and Military Spending

Anachronistic and collapsing frameworks for global security, development and building enduring peace do not meet the challenges facing humanity and all life on the planet in the 21st century. Diverting monetary and human resources away from developing and producing weapons and war towards efforts that benefit the common good is the linchpin for new approaches to resolving seemingly intractable problems. To achieve those goals, strong multilateral systems and structures of global governance must be enhanced and developed. Individuals and institutions all have roles to play to bring about sustainable development and enduring peace.

Profile of Jody Williams
Jody Williams
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The International Implications of Japan's Non-nuclear Policy

As a result of its defeat in World War II, Japan became a military ally of the Unitsed States upon the restoration of its sovereignty. In time, Japan’s security came to depend on the extended nuclear deterrence of the United States. On the other hand, Japan, which experienced the nuclear catastrophes of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, has continued to emphasise the need for nuclear abolition, even though it is a U.S. military ally. There has continued to exist a gap between ideals and reality. However, ultimately, eliminating the risk of nuclear war requires the abolition of nuclear weapons. But achieving this goal will require global governance of nuclear disarmament and dealing with the gap between the ideal of a nuclear-free world and the reality of living with nuclear weapons. The international community would do well to seek answers to this question by learning from Japan’s experience of reliance on the U.S. nuclear umbrella.

Profile of Fumihiko Yoshida
Fumihiko Yoshida
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Rethinking the Geopolitics of a Collective System for Armament Regulation

Existing regimes of armaments regulation are scattered and are based on the presumption that antagonism and competition are the norms of interstate relations. This chapter argues that these presumptions and beliefs need to be challenged, and that in the absence of such challenges, lasting results will not come about. Part I of the chapter begins with an analysis of these presumptions as reflected in the binary thinking of world politics. Part II examines the role of international law in reinforcing such binaries. Part III proposes some changes in narratives that might challenge and change these presumptions and beliefs.

Profile of Binxin Zhang
Binxin Zhang
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Part II - Governance for Peace and Security

Enhancing Global Governance

This chapter presents an inquiry into current structures, norms and behaviour that together constitute the more overarching forms of global governance. When global governance is situated within its present world historical context, it becomes apparent that humanity as a whole is confronted by an unprecedented array of problems that are not being effectively addressed. This is partly due to deficiencies in global governance that derive from its long tradition of exclusively being shaped by the interests of the parts of the whole, whether states, geopolitical actors, religions, or civilisations. The chapter insists that sub-systemic approaches to global-scale problem-solving will not succeed given current realities unless supplemented by a systemic outlook that promotes high levels of global cooperation and political compromise that accords deference to the human or global interest and the global public good. In this spirit, world government, the United Nations, coalition building, and global statism are critically examined and evaluated.

Profile of Richard Falk
Richard Falk
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Revitalising UN Collective Security

The collective security system embodied in the UN Charter has never functioned as intended. Article 43 “special agreements” were never concluded, and so when military forces are deployed by the United Nations, they do so on a voluntary basis. As far back as 1948, Secretary-General Trygvie Lie proposed a UN Guard of 5,000 to perform limited functions. Other proposals since then range from a large International Peace Force of 800,000 to a more modest UN Emergency Peace Service of 13,500. This chapter argues that the time is right to begin discussing the creation of an International Standing Civilian Protection Service of 2,400 personnel, deployable in small modular Joint Protection Teams. Such a service would meet an immediate need of providing a rapidly deployable, multidimensional capacity for civilian protection that is tailored to a particular conflict. Equally important, it could lay the foundation for more far-reaching reforms, such as revitalisation of Article 43 agreements. Even these more ambitious proposals are not a full response to the challenges posed by rising geopolitical tensions and conflict. But if addressed with a sense of urgency, incremental steps of the sort proposed here can change the normative and political climate, thereby opening the door to deeper reforms that currently seem out of reach.

Profile of Ian Johnstone
Ian Johnstone
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Global Governance and Human Security

This chapter reviews how the practical implementation of human security by states, as well as international and regional institutions, is a necessary condition for effective global governance. It traces the changing meaning of human security, including the ‘broad’ version of security linked to human development, the ‘narrow’ so-called Canadian version linked to human rights and the European version centred on addressing conflict. It outlines the radical critiques of the concept and how they can be considered to amplify the concept, especially the understanding of what it means to be human. It draws attention to the growing interest among the military in human security, especially in Europe and NATO, and argues that although human security refers to a broad range of existential threats to individuals and the communities in which they live, and that a range of instruments are required to counter those threats, a shift in the role of the military from war-fighting to the protection of civilians is central to the operational application of human security. The chapter concludes by discussing the implications of such a shift for the legitimacy of global governance.

Profile of Mary Kaldor
Mary Kaldor
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Three Aspects of Radical Inclusion Necessary for a Workable New System for the Peaceful Settlement of International Disputes

Fundamental to the concepts of enhanced peaceful settlement of international disputes or an international peace force is the idea that such a framework would serve to further shift the geopolitical balance away from a calculus of military might and towards more just legal, ethical and humanitarian outcomes. Such designs for global governance, however, have often been called impracticable and unworkable, unable to mobilise the necessary ‘political will’ of major powers, as well as those seeking to change power balances. This chapter addresses a different and arguably more important challenge to ‘workability’—that of inclusion in the form of ‘bottom-up’ incorporation of voices and perspectives, from the inception of global designs to their implementation and evaluation. Inclusive and egalitarian dialogues, plans and partnerships are crucial to achieving effective, positive outcomes for ensuring the peaceful settlement of disputes. In this chapter, three aspects of inclusion are discussed: (1) stakeholder inclusion (regarding the range of actors affected by conflict), (2) temporal inclusion (regarding when such actors are included) and (3) epistemological inclusion (regarding expanding the kinds of knowledge that inform designs for peaceful settlement). The chapter also connects such radical inclusion to the possibilities for strengthened peaceful dispute settlement/peace force deliberations (e.g., under a renewed UN Charter framework) and for addressing relevant issues in the world today that affect conflict.

Profile of Cecelia Lynch
Cecelia Lynch
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Infrastructures for Peace

The notion of infrastructures for peace (I4P) has gained attention in the peacebuilding community in recent years. I4P comprises all institutions, mechanisms, resources, and skills that address the root causes of conflict and support peaceful conflict resolution. Two main approaches to I4P development are identified: a loose and informal approach based on traditional conflict resolution mechanisms and a more formal and systematic approach based on institutional capacities. The chapter advocates for the latter approach, stressing the importance of local ownership and inclusiveness in building I4P. Additionally, the chapter discusses the challenge of linking I4P to the broader network of regional and international peace and security arrangements. The author suggests that a formal and systematic approach to I4P development can enhance state governance and improve the work of multilateral institutions in addressing complex transnational peace and security challenges.

Profile of Darynell Rodríguez Torres
Darynell Rodríguez Torres
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‘Organic Evolution’ in the United Nations

This chapter reviews the experience of ‘organic evolution’ in the United Nations, critically reflecting on its capacity as a central institution of global governance to respond to the catastrophic global risks facing humanity. The chapter focuses on those aspects of the United Nations’s activities most relevant to its core purpose of maintaining international peace and security. It begins by identifying the central dynamics of transformation experienced by global governance organisations before sketching a high-level history of ‘organic evolution’ in the United Nations’s structure and activities. It then outlines several key legitimacy challenges that arise from how the United Nations has evolved, further complicated by the United Nations’s many interactions with other organisations and entities. The chapter concludes by exploring some overarching questions which should guide deliberations on how the United Nations will approach the next stages in its organisational evolution, with particular attention to how its mandate in the area of peace and security may be meaningfully enhanced.

Profile of Guy Fiti Sinclair
Guy Fiti Sinclair
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Towards Global Parliament

Twenty-two years after their seminal article, Toward Global Parliament, published in Foreign Affairs Magazine, Andrew Strauss and Richard Falk revisit the contemporary prospects for a Global Parliament. The authors make the case that despite the formidable global rise of ethno-nationalism, the initiation of a Global Parliament is still possible in today’s world. With an orientation of openness to novel possibilities that are not subject to predictive analysis, they base their hopeful assessment on an examination of the impact of the rise of China, the perceived urgency of securing national democracies, the resilience of globalisation and its accompanying governance imperatives, and changing global religious sensibilities.

Profile of Andrew Strauss
Andrew Strauss
Profile of Richard Falk
Richard Falk
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Global Governance for Civilisational Crises

The world is facing an increasing number of civilisational crises which pose catastrophic risks capable of eroding or ending human civilisation. Our current multilateral order is not capable of mitigating these crises. The United Nations is not able to prevent wars involving superpowers or restrain the arms race in weapons of mass destruction. The weakening of multilateralism is mirrored in the strengthening of hyper-nationalism in many countries. It is necessary to reinvent a multilateral order that can respond to civilisational crises. We need a Global Governance Grid to promote an integrated civilisational response to global crises, not to intervene in the daily business of the Security Council dealing with specific conflicts. At the apex of the grid, there should be a steering committee of persons who are elected for their high moral fibre and not for their national affiliations. The second layer should be made of a World Parliamentary Assembly. The third layer should be a Conflict Resolution Forum, with focus on conflicts between big powers or between a big power and a small power. In order to bring about such a huge transformation, it will be necessary for most countries of the world and peace movements to come together and launch a massive political campaign. The world’s population should be sensitised to the alternative of widespread conflict.

Profile of Sundeep Waslekar
Sundeep Waslekar
Profile of Ilmas Futehally
Ilmas Futehally
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The International Court of Justice and Its Role in the Peaceful Settlement of Disputes in the 21st Century

The International Court of Justice (ICJ) is both the principal judicial organ and one of the United Nation’s six main organs. It remains the ‘court of reference’ for identifying customary rules of international law and states continue to refer their maritime and territorial disputes to it for peaceful resolution. The ICJ’s consent-based jurisdiction has traditionally prevented it from making orders or issuing judgements in relation to many international crises, including the situation in Yemen, the genocide committed by ISIS and the ongoing civil war in Syria. However, major crises are now before the Court: the Russian invasion, the situation in Palestine and the existential threat of climate change. This chapter considers what aspects of the ICJ could be strengthened to make the ICJ an international court able to meet the demands of the 21st century. It covers both quick wins from updates to procedure to seismic shifts towards the ICJ being closer to a court of mandatory jurisdiction.

Profile of Philippa Webb
Philippa Webb
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Prospects for Operationalizing UN Charter Article 26

The architecture of international treaties and organisations formed in the 20th century to reduce deadly conflict and foster stability seems more strained today than at any time in its history. It is critical to strengthen the existing system governing weapons, with urgent focus on those elements that govern nuclear, chemical and biological weapons. One area of inquiry involves whether more can be done to enact Article 26 of the UN Charter or more robustly pursue its intent. While governance of armaments broadly is an important topic, in this chapter, we will focus on the need to manage and mitigate global catastrophic risks in the 21st century—in particular, the governance of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons. Throughout, we aim to highlight how measures that meet the spirit of Article 26 are important to rebuilding trust in international cooperation. The chapter begins with the background behind the early years in which implementing Article 26 was considered, followed by indicators of the status of the current major weapons of mass destruction–related treaties. We describe key trends in the global security environment today that are shaping the status quo, offer ideas for how to strengthen weapons governance in these areas and provide context for what has changed since the inception of Article 26 and what remains possible in terms of meeting its ideals.

Profile of Andy Weber
Andy Weber
Profile of Christine Parthemore
Christine Parthemore
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Finessing R2P, an International Peace Force to Protect Heritage and Humans

The ethical, political, legal, and operational foundations of the evolving Responsibility to Protect (R2P) norm provide a policy wedge for the specific task of protecting cultural heritage by an international peace force, an idea that has been summarily dismissed for three-quarters of a century. The politics that lead to contestation about when and where to intervene in specific crises to protect people do not characterise the destruction of cultural heritage. Rogue attackers—such non-state thugs as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS or by its Arabic acronym Da’esh), pariah states such as the Taliban’s Afghanistan and major powers such as China—are immediate targets for widespread if not quite universal external opprobrium. This chapter begins by discussing the salience of the present moment before the relevance of the R2P for the protection of cultural heritage. It continues with the value of inserting politics into what has been largely a legal conversation for over a century. The conclusion explores the possible “force multiplier” resulting from the use of heritage protection as a routine part of the peaceful resolution of disputes and of the mandates for outside military forces, more particularly of an independent peace force.

Profile of Thomas G. Weiss
Thomas G. Weiss
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Part III - Governance for Climate and People

Towards Effective Multilevel Environmental and Sustainability Governance for Shared Ecological Risks

Climate change; the collapse of biodiversity and ecosystem services; multiple forms of pollution, including plastic; and other environmental pressures on the planetary ecosystem are combining into an existential risk to human well-being and even survival on this planet. It is obvious that the gap in effective global environmental governance to remain within planetary boundaries is part of the problem, and there are proposals to address this, including the creation of a Global Environment Agency. National action also needs to be reinforced against the pressure of economic actors intent on short-term profit from resource exploitation and pollution. Then more needs to be done to empower local communities with the capacity and knowledge to manage their own environmental resources sustainably. Mechanisms should be created to build coherence across these levels. Beyond this, the present measures of progress in financial terms, including gross domestic product (GDP), must be replaced by science-based non-financial integrated accounting for the climate system, sustainable energy supplies, biosphere integrity, pollution reduction, a regenerative food system, the integration of nature and culture, and the comprehensive use of human capacities in healthy communities.

Profile of Arthur Lyon Dahl
Arthur Lyon Dahl
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Global Food Systems in Crisis

The current structure of global governance is not capable of solving rising hunger and malnutrition given the adverse impact of recent multiple crises, including recurrent famine threats, excessive capital concentration, climate change, increasing pressure on natural resources, economic shocks, and disruptions to global food supply chains caused by COVID-19 and the war in Ukraine. There are two dominant views about how to respond in the face of a broken system of global food governance. One dominant view is a production-oriented, neo-liberal market model that supports globalised food systems. The second is a human rights-based approach that promotes the right to food, including women’s rights and the rights of food workers and peasants. This chapter argues that transformation of global food systems will not be achieved unless the substantive and procedural principles of the human rights system are integrated into global food governance. It examines, among others, several global food crises, the limitations of the current structure of global governance, the legal and political developments of the right to food, and recommendations for the transformation of global food systems to achieve a sustainable, resilient, just, and equitable system.

Profile of Hilal Elver
Hilal Elver
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Transformative Shifts for a New Global Environmental Governance

In this chapter, we confront the urgent and multifaceted global environmental crisis that challenges our very existence as a species. Despite incremental advancements in international environmental standards and growing public awareness, the escalating severity of climate change, water stress, pollution, and biodiversity loss necessitates a comprehensive transformation of our multilateral systems. By examining the historical development of the international environmental agenda, alongside the successes and shortcomings of key multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs), we illuminate the gaps between international commitments and their translation into policy and action. The discourse extends to critical issues of implementation, accountability and liability, highlighting recent developments in environmental law and litigation. We posit that the impending ecological catastrophe requires a profound and systemic shift in our global environmental governance. As such, we recommend fostering an epistemic and normative transformation that enables a robust, integrated and equitable response to the existential environmental challenges we face today.

Profile of María Fernanda Espinosa
María Fernanda Espinosa
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The International Criminal Court

This chapter begins with a short account of the birth of modern international criminal justice, the establishment of the ad hoc United Nations Criminal courts, the hybrid criminal tribunals, and the 1998 Rome Statute for the International Criminal Court (ICC). It goes on to discuss the political challenges faced by the ICC since it began its work in July 2002. There follows a discussion of the criticisms of the operations of the ICC that were investigated by the Independent Expert Review of the ICC (IER) that was established at the end of 2009 by the Assembly of States Parties. The most important findings and recommendations of the IER are analysed and assessed. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the future of the ICC.

Profile of Richard J. Goldstone
Richard J. Goldstone
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State Interests and the Global Response to Forced Displacement

This chapter is a reflection on the state of the world with a focus on how the global political economy, conflict, violations of human rights, and climate change continue to challenge the international community in how we respond to people forced to flee. While a brief chapter cannot address all the factors that have gotten us to where we currently are, it is a modest attempt to identify key elements that can help us move towards a more equitable, just and predictable system to support the forcibly displaced. In addition to reviewing global political realities and challenges that impact UN institution and state behaviour, the paper provides several pathways, including expanding the application of human rights standards; the urgent need for UN Security Council reform; diversifying UN leadership and staffing; consolidating refugee participation and representation; and developing the law, policy and practice on reparations and accountability.

Profile of Brian Gorlick
Brian Gorlick
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Carbon, Confusion and Conflict

This chapter reviews the global governance implications of the Net-Zero Transition. Over a relatively short period (2015–21), decades of resistance and denial to climate change have given way to a simultaneous race and scramble: a race for new technologies and sources of renewable energy and a scramble for the key resources of the future. These will determine who leads, prospers and suffers in the next era. Net-zero pledges and low-carbon strategies are still too unspecific to give a clear sense of their consequences today. But the chapter examines two major ways the transition will affect international relations and global governance. First, the study identifies a group of states that will experience unprecedented vulnerability and threats to their social stability. Second, as competition grows for new low-carbon materials, technologies and markets, the transition itself will create new interstate tensions and conflict. These two patterns will together stress test existing multilateral/regional institutions and processes well beyond the climate governance architecture, will prompt reform of the international financial institutions, will require rationalisation of the new institutions that have proliferated in recent years and will likely see additional institutions and state groupings emerge.

Profile of Joshua Lincoln
Joshua Lincoln
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Combatting Corruption to Advance Good Governance

While corruption—and particularly grand or high-level corruption—seems to be getting worse on several fronts, there is also more public and media attention to both its pervasiveness and detrimental impact on societies. Corruption and bribery sabotage public finance, slow private-sector development, advance inequality, and weaken government. However, an increasing number of citizens, national governments and international organisations are advocating to combat corruption. Greater transparency helps, as does less red tape, subsidy reform, improving budget processes, and implementing international agreements. Ultimately though, corruption is a global problem that will require a global solution. Corruption in recent decades has continued to flourish, even though 187 countries are party to the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC), and each has laws criminalising corrupt conduct. In order to fight corruption, some binding international judicial mechanism is necessary to prosecute individuals violating laws on corruption in those cases where the justice system and the state have been captured by corrupt elites which control the police, the judges and prosecutors and provide them with impunity. A free-standing International Anticorruption Court is a promising option worth considering. The authors explore what would be involved in setting up such a court.

Profile of Augusto Lopez-Claros
Augusto Lopez-Claros
Profile of Ian J. Lynch
Ian J. Lynch
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Global Health Governance

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), more than 6.9 million people had died from COVID-19 as of May 2023. While vaccines were rolled out in record time, only 30 per cent of people in low-income countries had received at least one dose of the vaccine by that date, according to Our World in Data. While we can laud many scientific advancements, the COVID-19 experience shows the huge inequalities that still exist across and within countries and societies. The pandemic has also demonstrated lack of financing, as well as the insufficiency of systems without leadership and governance without trust and accountability. This chapter reflects on lessons from the COVID-19 pandemic, including how formal and informal rules governing the global health architecture influenced the pandemic response. While the pandemic revealed gaps in current surveillance systems across the world, it also underscored the importance of integrated and collaborative surveillance and public health intelligence, including digital innovations. Lastly, the chapter reviews how the pandemic gave us lessons on the innovative financing needed and broad proposals to ensure that the world is more prepared for future pandemics – particularly in the realm of global health governance.

Profile of Thidar Pyone
Thidar Pyone
Profile of Soumya Swaminathan
Soumya Swaminathan
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What Do Extreme Poverty and Inequality Mean for Global Political Stability?

Poverty and inequality are long-standing, complex global issues that require concerted and long-term engagements to address. This chapter assesses current progress in the fight against extreme poverty and then discusses the implications for global political and social stability. It puts a strong emphasis on the interrelationship between poverty and labour income, given that income from labour is the largest asset owned by the poor. The poverty reduction successes of the last 50 years, a period in which the world population increased by four billion, are all to be found in countries that transformed their economy to create more productive and better-paid jobs, thus raising earnings. Despite these success stories of increased labour earnings reducing poverty, too many people in developing countries are still working in low-productivity, insecure jobs. This chapter outlines recent trends in extreme poverty and inequality in the world, focusing on the impact of the pandemic while highlighting various channels through which poverty and inequality can affect global political and social stability. The chapter discusses policy options, including the need for efficient public spending, promotion of gender equality and a new social contract for data.

Profile of Asif Islam
Asif Islam
Profile of Ani Rudra Silwal
Ani Rudra Silwal
Profile of Federica Saliola
Federica Saliola
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Order the book from Routledge Press

These authors jump start the over-due conversation required for reforming international institutions and expanding global governance enough to avert rolling catastrophes for humanity. Filled with pro-found normative wisdom, astute theoretical analysis of structural problems, and penetrating empirical evidence of what is required for human security and dignity, this collection is must reading for every person hoping to stand effectively against global injustice and for human survival.
Robert C. Johansen, Senior Fellow, Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies; Professor Emeritus of Political Science and Peace Studies; Keough School of Global Affairs, University of Notre Dame
Amid the many books diagnosing the extent and severity of looming global threats and the inadequacy of current global institutions to meet them, Global Governance and International Cooperation stands out for the quality of its contributors, the depth of knowledge they bring to bear on their subjects, and a welcome focus on practical solutions.
Anne-Marie Slaughter, CEO, New America, Professor Emerita of Politics and International Affairs, Princeton University
The peace of the world is more imperiled today than at any time in the last forty years. Fortunately, Richard Falk and Augusto Lopez-Claros have assembled talented con-tributors to analyze how international institutions and instruments may now be refashioned to meet the very real challenges of our troubled era: Richard Goldstone on the ICC, Thomas Weiss on R2P, Philippa Webb on the ICJ, Joshua Lincoln on Global Warming, and Hilal Elver on Global Food Systems are but a few of the telling essays in this timely and valuable volume.
Robert I. Rotberg, Harvard Kennedy School; Founding Director of the Harvard Kennedy School’s Program on Intrastate Conflict; President Emeritus of the World Peace Foundation

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